Stigma by association among relatives of transgender individuals in the Netherlands: a qualitative study


Transgender individuals can be the victim of stigmatisation (Keuzenkamp, 2013; Norton & Herek, 2012). Research shows that people who are associated with stigmatized, for instance partners, parents and children, can also face... [ view full abstract ]


In this study we tried to find answers to the following questions: To what extent and in what form do partners, parents and children in the Netherlands experience stigma by association, what is the influence of stigma by... [ view full abstract ]


We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with family members of transgender individuals. A total of 25 people was interviewed, of whom 15 parents, 5 partners and 5 adult children from transgender individuals.... [ view full abstract ]

Main Outcome Measures

The following themes were discussed during the interviews: - Experiences of partners, parents and children of transgender individuals with the transition of their relative, - their experiences with stigma by association, -... [ view full abstract ]


In response to how they experienced the transition many relatives reported an initial sense of mourning. Many partners had experienced confusion about their own identity. Children and partners of transgender people had... [ view full abstract ]


In this study, only few of the relatives had experienced stigma by association. This is a positive outcome. However this could be due to a selection bias since all relatives in this study were related to transgender... [ view full abstract ]


  1. Eva-Marijn Patty-Stegemann (Open University of the Netherlands)
  2. Mark Hommes (Open University of the Netherlands)
  3. Arjan Bos (Open University of the Netherlands)

Topic Area

Oral & Poster Topics: Social sciences


OS-2D » Social Sciences II: Transgender Families (11:00 - Friday, 7th April, Mediterranean)

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