Gender trouble: Item 110 on the child behavior checklist and youth self-report


When the Child Behavior Checklist and the Youth Self-Report were first published, they both contained two items pertaining to gender identity (Item 5: “Behaves like opposite sex”; Item 110: “Wishes to be of opposite... [ view full abstract ]


The aim of the present study was two-fold: (1) to report on the prevalence of Item 110 in two new standardized samples: the 2001 U.S. version of the CBCL and YSR (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) and the 2013 Dutch version of the... [ view full abstract ]


Four samples were used: For the CBCL, the U.S. and Dutch samples of referred and non-referred children (ages 6-18 years); for the YSR, the U.S. and Dutch samples of referred and non-referred youth (ages 11-18 years). In total,... [ view full abstract ]

Main Outcome Measures

The dependent measures of total behavior problems, suicidality, and poor peer relations were each analyzed in a 2 (Gender) x 2 (Referral Status: Referred vs. Non-Referred) x 2 (Item 110: Present vs. Absent) analysis of... [ view full abstract ]


Across referral status, country (U.S. vs. Holland), and form (CBCL vs. YSR), Item 110 was coded as present in less than 1% of cases (e.g., in Dutch referred boys on the CBCL) to 16.0% of U.S. referred girls on the YSR. Across... [ view full abstract ]


In both clinic-referred and non-referred children and youth, Item 110 proved to be a powerful correlate of behavioral and emotional problems in general and suicidality and poor peer relations in particular. It is rather... [ view full abstract ]


  1. Kenneth Zucker (University of Toronto)
  2. Thomas D. Steensma (VUMC)

Topic Area

Oral & Poster Topics: Children and adolescents


OS-2B » Children & Adolescents II: Assessing Prevalence, Treatment Satisfaction and Mental Health (11:00 - Friday, 7th April, Atlantic 2)

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