Autistic symptoms in adults with gender dysphoria: Are we observing reality?


There is an increasing clinical and research interest in co-occurring gender dysphoria (GD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Only a few studies have investigated the co-occurrence of GD and symptoms of ASD in adults, and a... [ view full abstract ]


This study aimed to investigate symptoms of ASD in a sample of adults referred for GD compared to a norm population, to provide a comparison between males assigned at birth (MAB) and females assigned at birth (FAB) with GD... [ view full abstract ]


Score patterns for symptoms of ASD of 326 adults referred for GD (191 MAB and 135 FAB) were compared to a norm population (454 males and 386 females). [ view full abstract ]

Main Outcome Measures

The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was used to measure symptoms of ASD. The Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale (UGDS) was used to measure the severity of GD in the population referred for GD. [ view full abstract ]


The prevalence of symptoms of ASD consistent with a cut-off score for a clinical diagnosis was 2.11%, significantly different from the AQ mean score in the norm population (p [ view full abstract ]


Although we found increased symptoms of ASD compared to the norm population, these symptom levels were lower compared to the previous studies in adults with GD. One of the possible reasons for the lower AQ scores reported... [ view full abstract ]


  1. Anna van der Miesen (VUMC)
  2. Lieke Vermaat (VUMC)
  3. Annelou de Vries (VUMC)
  4. Baudewijntje Kreukels (VUMC)

Topic Area

Oral & Poster Topics: Mental health


OS-2A » Mental Health II: Autistic Spectrum Symptomatology and Non-binary Genders (11:00 - Friday, 7th April, Baltic)

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