Prevalence of adolescent gender variance in Germany

Inga Becker

University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf

Inga Becker is a psychologist and researcher at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE), Germany. She is about to finish her PhD with a focus on gender dysphoria in youth. Inga Becker works within the two main research projects on gender identity/ gender incongruence in childhood/ adolescence and adulthood at the UKE, the Institute of Sex Research and Forensic Psychiatry and the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics. 


Adolescence marks a transition point in the development of gender experience and expression. Although there is growing awareness about various gender identities in health research, only limited data on the prevalence of... [ view full abstract ]


The main research goal was to identify how many adolescents display what we consider a gender variant experience or nonconforming expression, how gender variance is distributed across gender and age, and what these experiences... [ view full abstract ]

Main Outcome Measures

German female and male high-school students aged 10–16 participating in the representative “Health Behaviour in School-aged Children” (HBSC) Hamburg survey were asked to report their current gender experience... [ view full abstract ]


The present study aimed to replicate results of previous research for adolescents by applying multidimensional categories for gender experience (including congruent, somewhat congruent, incongruent, ambivalent, and no gender... [ view full abstract ]


In total, 4.1% of the adolescents’ responses were rated as variant in gender experience and 3.0% as nonconforming in expression. Both variant experiences and nonconforming expression together were present in only 0.9% of... [ view full abstract ]


Fluidity between clearly congruent or incongruent pathways is present in adolescence, including variant as well as possibly still developing (only somewhat clear) gender experiences, whereas clearly incongruent identification... [ view full abstract ]


Inga Becker (University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf), Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer (University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf), Veronika Ottová-Jordan (University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf), Michael Schulte-Markwort (University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf)

Topic Area

Oral & Poster Topics: Children and adolescents


OS-2B » Children & Adolescents II: Assessing Prevalence, Treatment Satisfaction and Mental Health (11:00 - Friday, 7th April, Atlantic 2)

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