Prevalence of adolescent gender variance in Germany

Inga Becker

University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf

Inga Becker is a psychologist and researcher at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE), Germany. She is about to finish her PhD with a focus on gender dysphoria in youth. Inga Becker works within the two main research projects on gender identity/ gender incongruence in childhood/ adolescence and adulthood at the UKE, the Institute of Sex Research and Forensic Psychiatry and the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics. 


Adolescence marks a transition point in the development of gender experience and expression. Although there is growing awareness about various gender identities in health research, only limited data on the prevalence of... [ view full abstract ]


The main research goal was to identify how many adolescents display what we consider a gender variant experience or nonconforming expression, how gender variance is distributed across gender and age, and what these experiences... [ view full abstract ]


German female and male high-school students aged 10–16 participating in the representative “Health Behaviour in School-aged Children” (HBSC) Hamburg survey were asked to report their current gender experience... [ view full abstract ]

Main Outcome Measures

The present study aimed to replicate results of previous research for adolescents by applying multidimensional categories for gender experience (including congruent, somewhat congruent, incongruent, ambivalent, and no gender... [ view full abstract ]


In total, 4.1% of the adolescents’ responses were rated as variant in gender experience and 3.0% as nonconforming in expression. Both variant experiences and nonconforming expression together were present in only 0.9% of... [ view full abstract ]


Fluidity between clearly congruent or incongruent pathways is present in adolescence, including variant as well as possibly still developing (only somewhat clear) gender experiences, whereas clearly incongruent identification... [ view full abstract ]


  1. Inga Becker (University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf)
  2. Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer (University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf)
  3. Veronika Ottová-Jordan (University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf)
  4. Michael Schulte-Markwort (University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf)

Topic Area

Oral & Poster Topics: Children and adolescents


OS-2B » Children & Adolescents II: Assessing Prevalence, Treatment Satisfaction and Mental Health (11:00 - Friday, 7th April, Atlantic 2)

Presentation Files

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