An urban scaling model for energy use in cities

Lorraine Sugar

University of Toronto

Lorraine is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Toronto with research interests in sustainable cities, cities as complex systems, and data for climate action. She is a recipient of the Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarship, a prestigious national award for leadership skills and scholarly achievement, as well as a doctoral fellow at the Global Cities Institute. She has co-authored several peer-reviewed publications on greenhouse gas emissions quantification and mitigation in cities. Previously, Lorraine was a climate change specialist at the World Bank, where she worked on both research and client-facing operations in city-based climate policy and carbon finance. She holds a Master of Applied Science in civil engineering and a Bachelor of Science in physics.


Cities are complex systems that display scaling behavior. Furthermore, they are the human habitats where we can better understand issues of resource consumption and sustainability. In this research, we seek to explore how to... [ view full abstract ]


  1. Lorraine Sugar (University of Toronto)
  2. Christopher Kennedy (University of Victoria/)
  3. Luis Bettencourt (Santa Fe Institute)

Topic Areas

• Complexity, resilience and sustainability , • Sustainable urban systems


WS-6 » Special Session: “Thermodynamics in Industrial Ecology and Sustainability” (09:45 - Wednesday, 28th June, Room I)

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